Selected Milestones and Next Steps
1. Ancient times. Babylon, Nile Valley, China, Leviticus (Old Testament), Hippocrates in Greece, Virgil and Galen in Rome: relation of animal disease to human disease.
2. Rudolf Virchow 19th Century (German physician and politician): interdependence between human and animal health.
3. His disciple Osler (1849-1919): considered by many as the father of the “One Medicine” concept
4. Calvin Shwabe (1976): coined the expression “One Medicine” and called for a unified approach between human and veterinary medicines (against zoonoses). Based on experiences in African communities ,the zoonotic dimension of health is formally addressed.
5. Wildlife Conservation Society in New York September 2004: the “One World, One Health-OWOH-™” concept and the 12 “Manhattan Principles”. The One Health concept is coined, “integrating ecology, public health and broader societal dimensions*”
6. During discussions at the International Ministerial Conference on Avian and Pandemic Influenza (IMCAPI) of New Delhi December 2007 it was said that: Promoting One Health could be the natural extension of the Global Response to Avian Influenza (GRAI).
7. The International Ministerial Conference on Avian and Pandemic Influenza (IMCAPI) of Sharm-El-Sheikh, October 2008. One Health becomes a political reality and a recommended approach.
8. Contributing to OWOH™. Strategic framework FAO-OIE-WHO-UNSIC-UNICEF-WB for Reducing Risks of Infectious Diseases at the Animal-Human-Ecosystems Interface, 14 October 2008.
9. The Winnipeg One World One Health™ meeting, 16-19 March 2009. A government takes the initiative to boost One Health implementation.
10. International Ministerial Conference on Animal and Pandemic Influenza (IMCAPI) of Hanoi, April 2010. The Hanoi Declaration, adopted unanimously, recommends a broad implementation of One Health.
11. The FAO-OIE-WHO Tripartite Concept Note, April 2010.
12. The Stone Mountain meeting: Operationalizing One Health: a Policy Perspective -taking stock and shaping an implementation roadmap-, Stone Mountain (Atlanta, Georgia), May 2010. One Health working groups are set up, with 3-year time operational objectives.
13. European Union. Outcome and Impact Assessment of the Global Response to the Avian Influenza Crisis, 2005-2010, Publications Office of the European Union, 2010. “The European Union has already taken initiatives under the One Health umbrella and will continue to do so in the coming years”.
14. Animal and Pandemic Influenza; A framework for Sustaining Momentum. Fifth Global Progress Report July 2010. United Nations and World Bank. The adoption of “One Health approaches” is one of the three suggested mainstreams of the “framework for sustaining momentum”.
15. The first international One Health Congress, Melbourne, February 2011. The scientific world -and the private sector- are on board. One Health case studies, from all continents, are being shared. There is clearly a “One Health movement” starting out there.
16. Various One Health meetings worldwide in 2010-2011 (e.g. Brussels June 2010, Sapporo/Japan December 2010, Minneapolis May 2011, London June 2011, Johannesburg July 2011, Bangkok August 2011, Addis Ababa September 2011). One Health Alliance of South Asia. One Health task force of ASEAN secretariat, etc.
17. Expert Meeting on One Health Governance and Global Network, Atlanta, October 31-November 1, 2011.
18. The Global Risk Forum One Health Summit 2012. One Health – One Planet – One future- Davos, Switzerland, February 2012.
19. Next. The Europe-Asia Conference on One Health, date tbc.
* Zinsstag et al., 2005. Potential of cooperation between human and animal health to strengthen health systems. Lancet 366, 2142-2145.